An excellent stalk-and-ambush predator, the cougar pursues a wide variety of prey. Primary food sources include ungulates such as deer, elk, moose, and bighorn sheep, as well as domestic cattle, horses and sheep, particularly in the northern part of its range. It will also hunt species as small as insects and rodents. This cat prefers habitats with dense underbrush and rocky areas for stalking, but can also live in open areas. The cougar is territorial and survives at low population densities. Individual territory sizes depend on terrain vegetation, and abundance of prey. While large, it is not always the apex predator in its range, yielding to the jaguar, gray wolf, American black bear, and grizzly bear. It is reclusive and usually avoids people. Fatal attacks on humans are rare, but have been trending upward in recent years as more people enter their territory.Excessive hunting following European colonization of the Americas and the ongoing human development of cougar habitat has caused populations to drop in most parts of its historical range. In particular, the cougar was extirpated in eastern North America in the beginning of the 20th century except for an isolated sub population in Florida. However in recent decades, breeding populations have moved east into the far western parts of the Dakotas, Nebraska and Oklahoma. Transient males have been verified in Minnesota Wisconsin Iowa the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Illinois where a cougar was shot in the city limits of Chicago and in at least one instance observed as far east as Connecticut. Today reports of eastern cougars still surface, but the last verified one was killed in 2011.